Top 5 Skin Diseases

The largest and the most visible part of the body is the skin. Its important functions include protection of the underlying mass (flesh, bones, blood vessels, etc.) and regulation of body temperature. It stores water, vitamins, oil and essential fats for the nourishment of the body. The skin is subject to a number of disorders which can adversely affect the health of the skin. For instance, excessive washing of the hands can lead to the skin becoming dry. This is because all the oil and water of the skin gets washed away and there is little to replete it. Here are the top 5 skin diseases, some common and some uncommon, which affect the health of the skin.

Skin Diseases

5. Eczema

 

Also known as atopic dermatitis, it is a type of inflammation of the skin which keeps recurring. It is usually caused due to unhygienic surroundings and genetic factors. Some of the common symptoms of this skin disease are redness, swelling, patchy skin, itching, dryness and flaking of the skin. There can also be blistering and bleeding, if the red patches are scratched.

Hence it advisable to not scratch the skin affected by eczema, especially with sharp objects such as nails, as this may lead to complicated diseases. There is no definite cure for eczema since it is a recurring skin disorder; hence treatment processes are aimed at reducing inflammation and itching.

4. Sebaceous cyst

This disorder occurs when a cheese-like substance gets accumulated in the epidermis of the skin. The sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance which helps in lubricating the skin and the hair follicles present in the skin layers. When this activity gets blocked for some reason, the cyst is formed. Cysts are more likely to be formed on the face, neck and trunk as well as genitals (in case of women).

Common symptoms of the cyst are tender red bumps, with grayish or white secretions having a foul smell. Sebaceous cysts can be prevented by maintaining hygiene and over-exposure to the sun. Generally, application of heat pads on the affected areas treat the cysts, although medical advice must be sought in case of complicated and recurring cysts.

3. Vitiligo

Another common skin disease which continues to affect many people across the world is vitiligo. It is a disorder in which certain parts of the skin lose their pigmentation, because the melanocytes (skin pigment cells) get destroyed only on certain patches of the skin. This condition can be either localized or spread over the entire body.

The exact reason for this skin disorder is not yet known, although it is believed that it occurs because the body’s immune system starts attacking its own cells and destroying them. Typical symptoms include patches on the skin, and although they are painless, they can have other psychological consequences. Treatment processes can reduce the severity of this disorder but there is no cure to it.

2. Hives

Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin disease in which the skin develops noticeably red bumps that are itchy and raised. They are mostly caused due to allergic reactions (dust, food, drugs, parasitic infection, etc.) and can vary in size and shapes. Their movement is quick and they can disappear from one place, only to reappear somewhere else.

Usually, hives last not more than 24 hours, but only in extreme cases can it last for up to a week. It is difficult to treat people suffering from chronic urticaria because determining their medication levels is an uncertain task. The only common way to prevent the outbreak of hives is to keep away from agents that trigger this disorder.

1. Acne

acne

And here comes the most commonly despised skin disease which affects people of any age and at any time- the acne! Acne is most commonly found occurring in teenagers during adolescence. Symptoms include- scaly red patches on the skin, blackheads, whiteheads, pimples and pinheads. It develops when a large number of follicles block the skin pores, or when the sebaceous glands secrete excess sebum. Other causes of acne include- hormonal activities, genetic modifications, infections, psychological disorders and unhealthy diet.

Treatment for this skin abnormality is done by applying creams and lotions containing specific chemicals such as benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, salicylic acid, retinoids, etc. Acne has certain psychological effects also, especially in teenagers and young adults, who are very conscious of their appearance.

These top 5 skin diseases are the most common ones to affect people by and large. They can be cured if the right treatment procedures are followed.

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